The British Empire deliberately created a legend to deceive all competitors and also became the gospel of conspiracy literature: The legend of the small ghetto merchants from Frankfurt who were able to build unheard-of fortunes and somehow managed to buy the controlling interest of the entire British Empire. Unhindered. Unchallenged. The empire that had fought other empires and stopped at nothing somehow bowed down to five jewish brothers who had no skills except book keeping and collecting loans. It is one of the dumbest fairy tales of all time.

It is highly conspicuous that figures from the Empire such as Winston Churchill, Nesta Webster, William Guy Carr or Henry Ford spread the fairy tale to an audience of millions in English-speaking countries. In Germany, the tales about the Jewish world conspiracy after the First World War were intended to distract the German national conservatives from the actions of the Anglo-American power.

The accountant

Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a small trader from Judengasse in Frankfurt, had to wear the yellow mark every time he left his house, be back at nightfall, pay Jewish tax when crossing the bridge over the Main and take his hat and bow every time asked. The imprisonment of the Jews had in principle no other reason than to generate more tax revenues. They paid the government Mafia protection money.

Life in the dense ghetto was latently threatened by major fires, epidemics and pogroms (massacres). When Mayer and his sons were later granted more power by the nobility, they knew they could be destroyed at any time if they fell out of favor. The populations of Germany, France or Great Britain would have felt some glee if one day they had read in the newspaper that a rich Jewish family called Rothschild had been expropriated and thrown back into the ghetto.

There was no Jewish country of their own to which the Rothschilds could have fled if necessary, there was no influential Jewish lobby in Europe, there was no secure legal citizenship and one was completely at the mercy of the ruling nobility. Mayer had lost both his parents in an outbreak of smallpox at the age of eleven and the chance of survival outside the ghetto would have been significantly greater. After attending a school of faith that could not arouse Mayer’s enthusiasm as much as the business world, he went to Bank Oppenheim in Hanover, the home of the British royal family, at the age of 13, to learn the advanced forms of trading and learned about the advantages that the job of a court factor brings. One of the Oppenheims served Elector Clemens August I of Bavaria in this function and supplied the court with luxury goods such as rare gold coins.

Mayer Amschel returned to Frankfurt around 1764 at the age of twenty, where the laws were stricter for Jews but the business opportunities were greater. His contact who he had met at Oppenheim was General von Estorff, and via this channel he was able to sell a few coins (at an extremely reduced rate) to Hereditary Prince Wilhelm von Hessen-Kassel in Hanau. Wilhelm’s mother was Princess Mary, a daughter of King George II of Great Britain.

Wilhelm and his father had already amassed an extremely large fortune by selling Hessian soldiers for the war of independence in America and were considered some of the richest princes of their time. Their close relatives of the British crown paid millions, insane sums in those days, which not only represented simple nepotism, but established Wilhelm as an outpost of the British Empire on German soil. His passion was money and producing illegitimate children (an estimated 40 of them), while his wife Wilhelmine Karoline of Denmark was completely averse to sex.

After many coin sales, in which Rothschild had to make losses, he finally received the title of a court factor or “court supplier of His Highness”, with which he could advertise his business and through which his reputation in Judengasse increased exponentially. In 1770, with his new social status, he was allowed to marry the young Gutle Schnapper, daughter of a court factor of the Principality of Saxony-Meiningen, which was created by the division of the Duchy of Saxony-Gotha. Nevertheless, he did not speak German properly and was unable to write it. Hereditary Prince Wilhelm already had half a dozen Jewish middlemen at hand and used established companies such as the Bethmann brothers for his finances, so that Rothschild could not gain access to this closed society for years. In the Judengasse, Mayer moved into his new house, half of which was inhabited by the Schiff family, who later became influential bankers in America. The idea was to have as many children as possible, who would continue to build the family’s wealth, but of the 20 children only half survived under the harsh conditions of Judengasse, where infant mortality was significantly higher than in the rest of Frankfurt. For 20 years Rothschild had failed to get lucrative orders from Landgrave Wilhelm, but then he made friends at court with his clever tax official Carl Friedrich Buderus von Carlshausen and finally had his foot in the door.

The rush of French troops forced Wilhelm to spend money on a few battalions to protect himself and his wealth, and the losses were quickly replaced by another deal with his relatives on the British throne: the lease of another 8000 Hessian soldiers for the British Empire. Rothschild imported clothes and other goods from England for sale in Germany, whereby especially in times of war exorbitant prices could be demanded due to the shortage. Finally some restrictions for Jews had been lifted and he was allowed to rent department stores in Frankfurt for his British goods. Napoleon’s advance and requests for credit from Wilhelm’s Danish relatives made it increasingly necessary to hide money and make payments secretly. The perfect straw men for the loan to the Danes were Rothschild and a Jew named Lawaertz. Buderus would have been far too obvious as a middleman and stayed in the background.

Even if Wilhelm did not participate generously in the war against France, he refused the lucrative French offers to defect. Half of the European monarchs and a number of princes and other rulers were in debt to Wilhelm, since he was acting like a large bank. In the event of Napoleon’s victory, the loans would not be repaid and he would have to flee. The worst case occurred, Napoleon marched through Germany and the riches and treasures of Wilhelm had to be transported as quickly as possible in all possible directions to save them from the French. About 50 crates had to be left behind and Wilhelm fled to his relatives in Denmark.

Carl Buderus succeeded in bribing the new French governor to recover part of the 50 crates seized. Four of them, partly filled with important contracts and documents, were taken to Rothschild’s house in Frankfurt’s Judengasse to a special hiding place. Mayer’s most capable son, Nathan, who looked fairly British with red hair and blue eyes, but spoke poor English, worked from Manchester and then from London, where he met the richest Jew in England, Levi Cohen, whose children later married into almost all leading Jewish families in England, including of course the Rothschilds.

Buderus received a noble title from Wilhelm for the successful rescue of part of his wealth and a special power of attorney for the landgrave’s business in exile in Denmark. Mayer Rothschild was to take over the task of collecting the repayments of outstanding loans, which was only possible with the help of his sons, sophisticated smuggling techniques and protection money payments, without being caught by the French.

With their arrogance, the Rothschilds had at times attracted the envy of Wilhelm and risked their lucrative business, but elsewhere relations were also cultivated with noblemen such as the Thurn and Taxis family, Karl Theodor von Dalberg and the Brentanos.

Buderus had to explain to Wilhelm why it made sense to use the Rothschilds as straw men and middlemen: They were more thorough, more discreet, more punctual, more ambitious. Nevertheless, it was only possible to involve Nathan Rothschild behind the landgrave’s back in important business such as trading in special British government securities (consols). The trade had made Mayer one of Frankfurt’s richest men and the demands and wishes to form a dynasty like the aristocrats grew accordingly and consequently his descendants were only allowed to marry within their own family if they wanted to participate in the family business.

Nathan Superstar 

Nathan was instrumental in buying up gold from the East India Company (British Empire) and immediately selling it back to the British government, allowing the Duke of Wellington to pay for his troops who fought Napoleon. Nathan took on the risky task of smuggling the gold and bought the protection of the Grand Duke of Dalberg, on whose help the Rothschilds could already rely several times. Further support came from the powerful von Thurn und Taxis family, who dominated the letter and parcel mail business.

Amschel died, Napoleon was pushed back and Nathan again played a reliable role in supplying the Duke of Wellington. The British Treasury even entrusted Nathan with processing huge payments to Britain’s continental allies. It would have been useless to steal from the Brits and run off, for the British were anything but beginners and the Rothschilds definitely wanted to ingratiate themselves to the Empire and not cause the slightest doubt about their loyalty. This major financial operation was led by influential politician and paymaster John Charles Herries, but the Rothschilds were rewarded with a million British pounds for their inventiveness and efficiency. Even the courier system of the Rothschilds, through which all kinds of information was transported at lightning speed, could not keep up with the secret service network of the British Empire and was certainly closely monitored by the nobility.

Remember: You could only rise in status if the established nobility trusted you and there were many safety mechanisms to ensure loyalty. At any time the tiny Rothschild clan could have been threatened, killed or arrested. That means the Rothschilds never truly owned all that wealth. They simply managed money flows and kept some of the books for the nobility.

The famous Battle of Waterloo, which sealed Napoleon’s downfall, led to false legends about Nathan, which still persist in conspiracy literature today and serve as an explanation of how the Rothschild clan, which only a generation earlier had modestly begun in the Jewish ghetto, is said to have seized the money power and left the nobility in the dust. Different versions of how, when and where Nathan is said to have learned who will emerge as the winner of the Waterloo battle have circulated over time, with a pamphlet telling the cinematic tale that Nathan received the information fastest and pretended to the stock market that Napoleon was the winner. After prices fell in the wake of panic selling, he would suddenly have made massive purchases and earned around £20 million from this insider trading. This representation is almost completely a fairy tale.

Several newspapers had immediately reported in special editions on the decision in the battle. Nathan very soon received a copy through his courier system, he dutifully informed the British aristocrat Lord Castlereagh and then simply bought a bunch of British bonds, which rose relatively quickly by two percent in value. That was all. He had previously been rich through his work for the British Empire. However, conspiracy literature still claims that Nathan, the son of a Jewish ghetto trader, made an incredible fortune that day at the expense of all the other powerful businessmen, while the nobles watched helplessly with open mouths. Nathans Waterloo-fairy tale was invented by the French journalist Georges Mathieu-Dairnvaell.

After Landgrave Wilhelm von Hessen-Kassell was able to move back into his luxurious Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, Rothschild paid back all the money entrusted to him with interest. The Rothschilds were formally Europe’s richest private bankers after the Napoleonic Wars, but their wealth was completely dependent on their position as obedient confidants to the British Empire. The performance of the Rothschilds in the smuggling of precious metals, money laundering and the operation of a cash flow clearing house was impressive from the British crown’s point of view. Nevertheless, it was natural to keep these nouveau-rich Jews on a short leash and to ensure that they would not at some point become too arbitrary with their money and skills.

The nobles could have arrested and expropriated Nathan at any time after the work had been done under any pretext. Conversely, the Rothschilds had no real means of exerting pressure on the phalanx of the nobility, the secret societies, the parliaments, the courts and the police. What about the Jewish networks that existed at the time? Although the old Mayer Rothschild also conferred with representatives from other Jewish communities in Judengasse in Frankfurt, the police had always kept their eyes and ears open. There are only unproven legends about powerful Jewish conspirator groups at the time. The few Rothschild men had their hands full with their business and they were definitely not allowed to change Europe’s power politics with their money at their own discretion. Only under the guidance of the British crown did the brothers take steps in France and Austria. They sent their extremely arrogant design of a family crest to Austria for their new titles of nobility, which contained the British leopard, the Hessian lion and five arrows (for the five brothers) in addition to the imperial eagle. Of course, this audacity was rejected. The Rothschilds sought the connection to Friedrich von Gentz, the influential Jewish advisor to Prince Metternich. In the meantime, the services of the Rothschilds were no longer as highly in demand as in wartime, and older, established banks were often preferred for large transactions. With a surprising move, the Rothschilds themselves participated in a gigantic loan business in France. Nathan’s family and private life was limited to influential Jewish families and sometimes extended significantly to the higher British nobility. From time to time a diplomat or the Duke of Wellington showed up.

Even Nathan’s narrow, modest house in St. Swithin’s Lane of London did not fit his status as one of the richest bankers of Europe. Didn’t he have the great riches? It is also striking that he practically never gave money to charity, not even for the benefit of the Jewish synagogues, although he was formally swimming in money. It is said that he was arrogant towards foreign princes in his office. He subsequently lent millions of British pounds to various European monarchs. If Nathan and his brothers were in fact the straw men of the British crown, what advantage would this arrangement have had? It would have obscured the British influence behind the granting of loans and aroused less suspicion, because the Jewish bankers were simply regarded by the public as rich saps who were interested in nothing but interest and dividends. If instead a bank owned by the British crown had offered these loans, power-political ulterior motives would have been suspected immediately, especially if these loans were granted to various noble houses, which were competitors of the British and competed against each other. One would think twice about starting a war if one knew that the distant bankers were financing both sides of the conflict.

Against the background of this thesis that the Rothschild Bank was a camouflage company of the British crown, it makes much more sense that Nathan lived for the longest time in a rather modest house in England than in a palace, it makes more sense that he mainly had Jewish friends and it also makes more sense that he acted demonstratively arrogant towards European aristocratic houses. If he had lived in a palace near the British nobility and had been flattering towards other aristocratic houses, mistrust would have arisen immediately.


Carl Rothschild, who was considered somewhat slow-witted and shy (but the exact opposite was true), gained the confidence of the Austrians and Italians with important loans and settled with his wife in a palace in Naples, where he received guests like Leopold von Sachsen-Coburg, favourite uncle of British Queen Victoria and later King of Belgium. Leopold played a major role in the creation of the Grand Orient de Belgique Freemason Lodge (1833) and laid the foundation for the later Lodge system. His son Leopold II ruled brutally over the African state of Congo, where he was responsible for several million deaths.

Amschel was the only strict believer among his brothers who still ate only kosher food and kept the look of a rabbi. He stayed in Frankfurt, worked the territory of Prussia and even rose to a kind of Minister of Finance with access to sensitive information, and he continued relations with Buderus and the Hessen-Kassel family.

His mother, aged over seventy, did not dare to leave the Frankfurt ghetto out of superstition, and one statement attributed to her was exaggerated excessively in the conspiracy literature: When a neighbor feared that there might be another war, she waved it off and said that this was nonsense, because her sons would not collect the necessary loans for it. In conspiracy books this sounds as if her sons dominated Europe, but this did not correspond at all to the reality of the time.

The brothers were a target for the animosities of many different people and thus served as a cloak for the actual structures of power. While Salomon Rothschild worked the Austrians, his brother James was responsible for large financial operations in France to support the new King Louis XVIII, but experienced more than an almost catastrophe because more sharks competed for the best deals and used dirty tricks. Because of the unrest in France, the Rothschilds lost 17 million and rumours circulated about their imminent bankruptcy. The family’s fast courier system prevented the disaster and, according to former French Ambassador Talleyrand, the Rothschilds always shared their information with the English authorities. One can assume that the British crown was always aware of what the many Rothschild agents in France were able to find out about the danger of revolution. James succeeded in helping his confidante Casimir Périer to the post of the new French Minister of Finance, the son of Claude-Nicolas Perier, in whose Château de Vizille the famous meeting of the Estates of Dauphiné took place in preparation for the French Revolution. Let us remember that the British Crown had an interest in overthrowing the monarchy of France and supporting the revolution in secret. For this purpose Adam Weishaupt had also been built up, whose Order of the Illuminati was then uncovered by the Bavarian police because of sloppiness.

Nathan was the star, the leader, clever, creative and determined. But how much of his success came from his own efforts and how much from possible backers of the British crown? Of course, he may have given the British Empire new impetus and ideas about banking, but it is much more likely that he was a puppet.

Unlike today, where only conspiracy theorists talk about the family, Nathan and his brothers had been the focus of mass media coverage, a target for hatred, sought after by ultra-high society celebrities. All the excesses that were once reserved for the high nobility were demonstratively practiced by the Rothschilds, as was the way of marrying: Of the 12 sons of the famous five brothers, nine married within their own family, although the daughters described as exceptionally beautiful aroused the interest of various noble families. Whoever married a Christian was practically disinherited and only a few marriages with other powerful Jewish families happened.

Hannah was never forgiven and when her son was killed, this was considered “God’s punishment”. But also Nathan experienced a violent and final blow of fate in the form of a deadly staph infection. While the established nobility had thousands of members, the Rothschild clan was very small and vulnerable. Nathan’s son Lionel demanded for himself and his family to finally be officially entitled to the title of baron, which was also granted to him by the new Queen Victoria. A close friendship developed with the politician and later Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who had Jewish roots but belonged to the Anglican Church. The remaining four old brothers moved into large palaces, with James as leader.

The nobility of Austria, Italy and Prussia considered the Rothschilds rootless Jewish upstarts, who were only interested in profit and with whom one could increase one’s own money and stabilize the state budget. The ability to raise money quickly was like a drug that was increasingly in demand and the more access the Rothschilds were given at the courts, the more they were given access to sensitive information. Also the parties were much more than just show-off and private pleasure, but again more access to information and rumours. The Rothschild women, who were excluded from the family business, cultivated friendships with influential people and probably have heard some things of notable importance.

James formally had an estimated £50 million in assets; which was outrageous at the time. He entered the railway business with Salomon late in the 1840s. For comparison: Johann Jakob Astor, another alleged “Self Made Man” and possible straw man of the British Empire, left the sum of 20 million dollars (today’s equivalent of about 100 billion dollars) in America at his death in 1848. The Rothschilds worked the European territory and left America mostly to other rich families. At that time the Rothschilds were still busy preventing wars such as those between France and Austria, which earned them the reputation of putting profits above honour and promoting peace only out of self-interest. It was not until later that they processed loans for war and earned the opposite reputation of profiting from the war, even though it would have been impossible to interfere in Europe’s political affairs in such a way without the permission of the British crown.

Otto von Bismarck looked at the situation soberly and tried to establish solid relations with the bank, which later became a problem for the German Reich. In private letters, the Rothschilds talked about coordinating with Windsor and King Leopold. The connection of the Rothschilds to the British was publically viewed as not much different from the connections to the noble houses of Prussia, Austria or Italy. A serious mistake.

The renewed revolution in France in 1848 removed the king and led to the proclamation of the Republic, endangering James Rothschild’s finances, as the railway shares fell in value. The revolution had also spread to Germany, Austria and Hungary. James befriended the new dictator Eugène Cavaignac in Paris, but it was Louis Napoleon, descendant of Bonaparte, who eventually became president of the new republic. Only two monarchies remained untouched by the upheavals of 1848: The British and the closely related Russians.

The Rothschilds also organized 16 million pounds for the mighty Crimean War, which led to the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. It is not clear whether and to what extent the bankers were privy to the larger geopolitical plans. It is quite possible that the British crown simply whispered to them what loans they should provide, when, where and for whom.

The new generation of Rothschilds was more active in the Jewish communities and put on pressure to repeal anti-Semitic laws, which of course also meant self-interest and benefit for the British crown, for favors brought loyalty and with loyalty more money could be made, favors could be reclaimed and information could be obtained.

Mayer Rothschild had Mentmore Towers built, a decadent showpiece to distract from the established nobility. Mentmore was used as a backdrop in Stanley Kubrick’s last film “Eyes Wide Shut” for an occult sex ritual of influential figures from the US East Coast. As an (atheistic) Jew and friend of Steven Spielberg, Kubrick was anything but an anti-Semite and actually intended to make the first major Hollywood film about the Holocaust. Since the East Coast is the home of many oligarchs connected with the British Empire and since the names Rockefeller and Windsor are mentioned at the beginning of the film at a party, the whole thing is a hint about the nature of the empire. If he had mentioned the name Rothschild, it would have been too close to typical conspiracy theories, but the use of Mentmore was certainly no coincidence.

Baron James de Rothschild had a larger version of the chateau called Ferrières built. This served as the location for the novel Polańskis occult thriller “The Nine Gates”, in which rich Satanists want to call on the devil. Lionel went into politics and was elected six times in London without making the obligatory vow on the Christian faith, so that he was blocked each time. It was not until 1858 that he joined parliament, but he never gave a single speech there.

Chaotic Times

Baron James tried to build a relationship with Louis Napoleon, the descendant of Bonaparte, against whom the Rothschilds had fought with their financial network by silently channeling British Crown money to troops on the mainland. Rothschild’s rival Achille Fould of the bank “Fould und Oppenheim” became French finance minister and stole the Rothschilds’ friends, the Jewish-Portuguese investors from the Pereires family. Maybe Émile Pereire had defected to Fould, but that’s just speculation. The new idea was a kind of semi-socialist Volksbank called “Crédit Mobilier”, which served countless small savers and was able to raise capital without large foreign banks. Ultimately, however, large international shareholders dominated here as well.

James maintained a relationship with General Changamier, head of the National Guard, who would have been able to overthrow Napoleon, but it is not known whether such plans were discussed between the two. The general was also in love with James’ wife, which of course was even more suspicious, and so Napoleon had him deposed and arrested, dissolved the National Assembly, reigned from then on as dictator and became emperor. Other private matters smelled of classic espionage: Baron James’ wife gave the most popular parties and they cultivated Eugénie de Montijo, whom Napoleon absolutely wanted to marry.

During the massive Crimean War in the middle of the 19th century, a kind of precursor to the coming world wars, the Rothschilds organized and guaranteed large loans for France and Britain, which came as no surprise to anyone and was no secret. The decision on the conflict and military objectives were not under the control of the bankers. Afterwards, the Ottoman Empire was practically doomed. In 1855 three of the four remaining brothers died: Carl, Salomon and Amschel. It is a very unlikely coincidence that, together with Nathan’s previous premature death, suggests investigating the circumstances of the deaths more closely for possible signs of murder. There were many unscrupulous competitors and the family did not have a huge security service to protect them from poisoning or the like. The competitor Crédit Mobilier was initially extremely successful, and Salomon Rothschild’s son Anselm prepared the very similar project called “Kreditanstalt” in Austria.

The third generation leaders were the cousins Alphonse, Anselm, Lionel and Mayer Carl. The family tradition of marriages was broadly respected, just as the important noble families of Europe had been practicing it for centuries. The Crédit Mobilier financed Napoleon’s war against Austria, and the shares fell by half and the mismanagement threw everything into the abyss. Fould had become highly suspicious of the Pereires he had recruited and had to recommend Napoleon to approach the Rothschilds again.

Lionel Rothschild was proposed for a “peerage”, i.e. a serious noble title with its seat in the House of Lords, but Queen Victoria refused on the grounds that the Rothschilds had made their money with foreign governments and with speculation on the stock market and therefore would not be eligible for such a patriotic status. In reality, the Rothschilds had initially only been able to become important bankers because of orders from the British Empire and the House of Hesse-Kassel, and the urgent suspicion is the Rothschilds were puppets for the British crown. The Queen was apparently keen to deny any too close ties between the bankers and the Empire and to give the impression as clearly as possible that these rich Jews only cared about their money and not about Britain. A clear move. Other aristocratic houses in Europe would hardly have been so willing to use the services of the Rothschilds if it had been assumed that the bank was only a camouflage organisation of the British high nobility.

Victoria’s son, the Prince of Wales, married as Alexandra of Denmark and complained bitterly that he was only granted £100,000 a year by Parliament (with the other Dukes getting  twice as much), while the Rothschilds built palaces worth millions. It all seems to have been part of the strategy that the nobles step into the background and no longer attract the envy of the population. We are talking about one of the most powerful and greediest empires of all time, which ruled the seas, subdued countries like China or India and traded at gunpoint.

It would have been very easy from the outset to use the Rothschilds only as royal accountants instead of allowing the upstarts to really accumulate millions. It would also have been extremely easy to steal much of the Rothschild’s wealth under an excuse, such as suspicion of collaboration with England’s opponents. In public perception, the high nobility was neither exceptionally rich nor decisively influential in politics, but this elaborate deception was of the utmost importance.

The Prince of Wales had met the sons of Lionel, Nathaniel, Alfred and Leo, at the elite University of Cambridge, and maintained relations with other Rothschilds and other Jewish families such as the Sassoons (who had also been established by the British Empire). The Rothschilds paid off the Prince of Wales’ debts and invested his money.

Alphonse Rothschild’s information network extended from Napoleon III to Otto von Bismarck and Empress Eugenie. Bismarck often visited the Chateau Ferrières of the Rothschilds during his time as ambassador for Paris. Later Bismarck became Prime Minister of Prussia and had an enormous continental power, which made the British very nervous. He took Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark, whereby the Danish nobility was of course closely related to the British nobility and to German families such as Hessen-Kassell, who in turn were closely associated with the Rothschilds.

There was a war between Prussia and Austria, which Austria lost very quickly. Gerson von Bleichröder, the confidant of the Rothschilds, had become Bismarck’s banker and Bismarck used the Rothschild information network instead of building his own secret service. The French expected a war against Prussia next and sent the French Rothschilds to England to appease Prussia. Nevertheless, the open conflict broke out and the French suffered a decisive defeat after only six weeks at Sedan.

Gerson Bleichröder and other bankers had already collected the loans for the Prussian-Austrian War and Bleichröder was also significantly involved in the negotiations and settlement of the French reparations payments after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71.

Bismarck and and Field Marshal von Moltke promptly turned Rothschild Castle Ferrières into their temporary headquarters and then moved to Versailles.

The representatives of the new French Republic had to negotiate and sought the advice of Alphonse Rothschild, after which Alphonse and his cousins managed reparation payments worth 5 billion francs with the usual efficiency and commissions. The German troops cleared France, the old French rulers had been removed to the joy of the British crown and the Germans were targeted next.

The Rothschilds built more palaces like Waddesdon, bought more racehorses and produced more expensive wine. Hannah Rothschild married Lord Rosebery, who later became Prime Minister, and was thus only the third Rothschild lady from the British branch to marry a Christian and break with her family tradition.

Lionel’s biggest deal came in 1875, four years before his death, with the Suez Canal, which was of great strategic interest to the British Empire. Four million pounds flowed from the Rothschilds, backed by the British government, for shares in the canal. As usual, the transactions were quiet, detours were taken not to scare up the markets.

The suspicion arises that when the British crown borrowed money from the Rothschilds, it actually gave itself credit. If the British nobility had done this business itself and possessed these riches, the British people would have gone ballistic.

In the 1870s, the Rothschild bankers were very busy because, in addition to the core business of banking, they were involved in railways, mineral resources and diamonds, but limited to Europe, the Middle East and parts of Russia. The USA was worked by other, mostly non-Jewish families. A Rothschild loan went to the Russian Czar and in return a permission was granted for the oil production in Baku. Before the oil industry became dominant, the Rothschilds sold the B’nito Petroelum Company to the Royal Dutch Shell Combine of the Dutch Royal House, which was related to the British nobility.

Gerson Bleichröder also brokered further urgently needed money to the Russian Czars, who were also related to the British throne. If Prussia or the German Reich or the Turks had known in good time what a global colossus would be formed, some decisions would probably have been made differently. Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild finally got his peerage and still his family intermarried with rare exceptions, such as Leo, who married a sister from the Jewish Sassoon family that had been empowered by the British Empire.

The young Winston Churchill was a regular guest at Rothschilds and formed a long lasting relationship with the bankers. Nathaniel Rothschild dramatically reduced his bank’s actions and preferred simple, safe investments, while competitors like Barings bitterly regretted their adventures in the markets. Alfred Rothschild served for a while as director of the Central Bank of England, which conspiracy literature generously misinterprets as a takeover of the Central Bank. He eventually violated privacy rules to check if he got ripped off in a deal selling a painting and lost his job.

Edmond, one of the family’s few strong believers, financed Jewish settlements in Palestine as an experiment as to whether this could even be carried out sustainably, with the considerable sum of six million pounds. Other Rothschilds and other influential Jews, however, were unenthusiastic about the barren spot in the desert and preferred areas in the USA or Western Europe as the new home state of the Jews. Later, however, the tiny state of Israel emerged, backed by guarantees from the British and Americans. Rothschild made the following statement:

“A Zionist is an American Jew giving money to an English Jew to bring a Polish Jew to Palestine.”

225,000 Jews from Russia flocked to Western Europe because of the anti-Jewish laws among the tsars and not every Jewish migrant was interested in going to the desert. The settlements were in chaos and ingratitude to Edmond, who in turn fumed because the settlers used larger subsidies to go on holidays and hire Muslims to cultivate the fields. There was also a dispute about the sabbatical year foreseen in the faith, where the fields were to be neglected. Rothschild threatened to send the settlers back to Russia.

After the decline of the Rothschild Bank of Naples, the Frankfurt branch was also closed because there had been no sons there and nobody else wanted to move there. The tensions between Russia, England and France on the one hand, and Germany on the other, conjured up the coming downfall of the Prussian land power. After the old powers of France had already been eliminated, it was now the turn of the German Reich and Austria to get destroyed.

Once again the Rothschilds were concerned with financing the coming (world) war without being involved in military and geopolitical decisions in any discernible way. The British Empire had restricted the Rothschilds to banking and industry and never granted them access to the high levels of the nobility and military. Conspiracy literature spreads the myth that Rothschilds and other Jewish bankers organized World War II themselves and ruled both America and Britain. What virtually no conspiracy theorist knows is that the Rothschilds themselves fought and died in the war. James de Rothschild, son of Edmond, joined the armies of France, Canada and Britain. Eugene served on the Russian front and was seriously wounded in the leg. Evelyn died fighting the Turks in Palestine. Lionel Walter and another Rothschild also died in battle. None of this fits at all with the myth that the Rothschilds, as secret kings, instigated and administered the war from a safe distance. It is highly questionable whether they had chosen to serve on the front because of a sense of duty, or because of the search for an adventure, or because perhaps the British crown had insisted on it. After all, in the past members of the British nobility had had to fight personally with their own hands for the Empire.

Austria was no longer a real superpower after the war, the currency crashed and the population had shrunk dramatically, France was severely battered, Germany was exhausted. The Rothschilds subsequently stabilized the French currency with the help of J.P. Morgan from New York. After the war, the Rothschild clan became increasingly concerned with distractions and pleasure.

Three leading men from the family had died in the war and a great deal of money had to be paid to the British government in a special tax (so-called death duties). Alfred also broke with the family tradition and bequeathed his money to his daughter Almina Wombwell, who was married to the Earl of Carnarvon.

The large, decadent houses in London were sold or demolished, the chateaus in the country were also largely sold. The clan was still high society and a power in banking, but the phase of demonstratively celebrated luxury was over and more family members devoted themselves to other fields such as medicine, racehorses, expeditions and the study of insects. In the 1930s there were only two active bankers in the clan, Lionel and Anthony, and the Rothschild Bank was “only” in the top 10, no longer the undisputed number one.

Victor Rothschild helped a number of Jewish refugees, while the British faked sympathies for the Nazis through unofficial channels. Hitler was warming up old British propaganda against Jewish bankers who supposedly controlled everything in the US and Europe. Hitler, Hess and Haushofer’s declarations of sympathy for England and the illusory expectations of the Nazis to be able to conclude an agreement with the British were consciously nourished by the British nobility and this brought the continent to the abyss. Baron Louis Rothschild from Austria even ended up in prison; other Rothschilds fled to Switzerland and France.

Again, three Rothschilds served as soldiers at the front in the spring of 1940, two of whom were imprisoned and fortunate enough to be treated as officers. Guy Rothschild made his way to Dunkirk, where he had to be evacuated with the Expeditionary Force together with the British troops and almost died at sea. This is not at all in keeping with the myth of the almighty Rothschilds.

The central legends of conspiracy literature cannot withstand closer scrutiny and new ones were constantly created over time to focus on Jewish clans. Even the entire British high nobility was accused of having jewish ancestors without solid evidence. All kinds of important figures were called Jews contrary to fact. An article in the London Times and Moshe Kohn in a Jerusalem Post article claimed that Churchill had maternally Jewish ancestors, but there is no evidence of this in the many different biographical studies on the Churchills. The author Shane Leslie is said to have planned a revelation. Proof? None. The revisionist David Irving (whose research partner is related to a former MI6 chief) repeated the legend in his book “Churchill’s War” and cites as a reference  the old article by Moshe Kohn, who ironically makes fun of revisionists like Irving and provides no evidence of Churchill’s alleged Jewish ancestors. Hitler was also often wrongly called a Jew and descendant of a Rothschild. Adam Weishaupt of the Illuminati Order was declared a Jew and Rothschild agent. Practically anyone who contradicts the conspiracy theorists is branded a Jew and a Zionist agent.

While several Rothschilds almost died in the war, the Hessen-Kassel family, which had made the rise of the Rothschilds possible in the first place, had it much easier and was one of the richest clans in Europe in 1939. Prince Philip of Hessen-Kassel did not have to fight at the front, but instead took part in espionage by playing the role of a supporter of Hitler, and because of his marriage to the daughter of the Italian king, he took on the role of special ambassador between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. After the war he was considered the richest man in Germany and the richest prince in Europe.

Victor Rothschild, on the other hand, defused bombs and wrote military manuals on the subject. After the war he moved back to his house on 23 Avenue de Marigny in the heart of Paris. The family continued to be involved in big business, but the time of the big palaces was over. Jacob married Serena Dunn, the non-Jewish descendant of the Earl of Rosslyn and the Canadian ultra-rich Sir James Dunn. London investment banker Nathaniel Rothschild broke the family tradition a few years ago and married a nude model, although he is Lord Rothschild’s only son and was expected to marry into the money nobility. The Daily Mail reported that Nathaniel found the model using the dating app “Happn”.

The BILD newspaper, which has a special loyalty to Israel and frowned upon every form of anti-Semitism, quoted wild estimates of the family’s total assets from 300 billion to 1 trillion euros. “The family won’t come up with exact numbers.” The conspiracy bloggers on the Internet like to pass absurd numbers around like about 500 trillion.

A barely heard marijuana-smoking rapper named Jay Electronica from the New Orleans ghetto became Kate Rothschild’s partner, whose previous marriage with wealthy Ben Goldsmith had failed. Experts assumed that she had not received anything from her ex-husband’s assets. Jay’s previous rapper career consists of a record deal with Jay Z’s label, without having released a big album. He is also a member of the bizarre Muslim sect “5 Percent Nation”.

Ben, son of the late billionaire Sir James Goldsmith and Lady Annabel, married Kate in 2003, daughter of the late Amschel Rothschild and Anita Patience Guinness. She ominously explained that her relationship with Jay “saved her life in many ways”. There was also suspicion that he was too close to model Cara Delevigne.

Amschel Rothschild came to the banking industry late and was more interested in racing cars during his life. In July 1996 he was found hanged in the Hotel Bristol in Paris. The important patriarchs were Baron Éric Alain Robert David de Rothschild and David René James de Rothschild. The latter is married to the Italian princess Olimpia Anna Aldobrandini.

Rothschild Trust Guernsey Limited is one of the banks that makes use of the services of Panamanian accounts and shell companies (Panama Papers). Guernsey, the second largest of the British Channel Islands, is not part of the United Kingdom, not a crown colony, but is directly subordinated to the British crown as “crown property”. Rothschild Trust Guernsey Limited operates as a subsidiary of Rothschild Bank AG, Zurich, which in turn belongs to Rothschild Holding AG, Zurich, which in turn owns more than two thirds of Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG in Zug, Switzerland, which in turn is controlled by Rothschild & Co. and thus by members of the Rothschild families and their companies.

Marie-Hélène de Rothschild held a surrealist ball at the Château de Ferrières in 1972, and photos of it have since appeared on the Internet and fired up the myths about satanic activities, without of course providing solid evidence. The films “Eyes Wide Shut” and “The Nine Gates” also used former Rothschild properties as locations for stories about organized Satanism. Without evidence, the legends increase the chaos of information rather than provide clarification.

Conspiracy literature also declared the Rothschilds the secret rulers of America and the American Central Bank, although historically the United States was managed by other (non-Jewish) families. Gerry Rough documented weaknesses in G. Edward Griffin’s book on the Federal Reserve and similar works.

US President Wilson’s famous quote about how unhappy he is to have handed his country over to a small group of men through the Federal Reserve is also an invention. Professor John M. Cooper of the University of Wisconsin, an expert on Wilson, said the President had always been “proud” of the creation of the Central Bank.

The well-known Jewish presidents of the Fed were taken as evidence for the claim that the Jewish private banks rule the world. In 1962 Omni Publications, which had already published the fake minutes of Zion, reissued a 1931 text entitled “The Truth About the Slump”. In the 1950s Wickliffe Vennard introduced “The Federal Reserve Corporation”, which was once again about Jewish dominance and where Hitler was celebrated as the Messiah who wanted to chase the Jewish moneychangers out of the temple. Then came Eustace Mullins with the book “The Federal Reserve Conspiracy” and finally Col. James “Bo” Gritz, according to whom eight Jewish banks control the Fed: Rothschild, Lazard, Israel Moses Seif, Warburg, Lehman Bros., Chase Manhattank, Kuhn, Loeb and Goldman Sachs.

If you look more closely, you find that the Fed mainly functions as a large clearing house and can inflate bubbles with changes of the key interest rate and cause them to burst. The possibilities for insider trading, illegal agreements and fantastic profits for private banks are endless, but the system is more complicated than the legend of the “Jewish banks” to which the Fed “belongs”. Owning shares in the regional Fed departments only brings in manageable dividends and fades in contrast to the other opportunities to rip off citizens.

The stories of other influential Jewish clans and banks other than the Rothschilds all revolve around upstarts who were provided with opportunities by the Anglo-American empire. The Sassoons were built by the British. Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was an American investment bank whose founder Loeb came from simple backgrounds and was commissioned in the American Civil War to supply the Union Army. Jakob Heinrich Schiff from Frankfurt am Main joined and brought more experience with him, as he was born into well-to-do circles. Schiff could only set up a large investment bank because he had connections with the railway industry, which was owned by non-Jewish oligarchs such as the Vanderbilts or the Harrimans.

It can be said that the classic conspiracy writers only repeated old legends, which had often been created and spread by the British establishment.

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