Politics

The Roman aristocratic strain in American politics

George Washington, like his ancestors before him, knew nothing but the Roman system, and the more the Washingtons served the upper families and the British throne, the more they benefited. At the age of 18, he was already integrated into the powerful Fairfax clan and owned his first plantation, which he had slaves work like a real Roman.

Ron Chernow’s biography of George Washington is considered the definitive work. The image that many have of George Washington today is stoic and iconic, like a statue or waxwork, or like his face on the banknote and the well-known portraits. In reality, he was very emotional and only those close to him were allowed to know his true character. He never had much understanding for the ordinary people of America.

He lived in a very different world than the rest of Americans. George Washington’s great-great-grandfather Lawrence Washington was already privileged, having two degrees from Oxford and even working there afterwards. The son John traveled to the US colony in Virginia and experienced a steep rise through ruthless trade, land ownership and war. The Indians called him “village destroyer.” He married Anne Pope, from a wealthy family, and was given hundreds more acres of land. He liked to use destitute migrants as workers who had to work off their excessive debts for the crossing: The so-called indenture or indentured servitude. He got to 5,000 acres, including the land of what would become the famous Mount Vernon estate. After Anne’s death, he married two sisters in succession. John died an early death. The inheritance went to the eldest son Lawrence Washington, who had studied in England and held several positions in Virginia such as Justice of the Peace and Sheriff. He married Mildred Warner, whose father was on the British King’s Council. He died at the age of 38. Augustine Washington inherited 1,100 acres and also served as a judge. This overambitious man married a landowning woman who died; then Mary Johnson Ball.

George Washington was born in 1732. From childhood, the British way of life was the role model. The father had shares in the steel company Principio Furnace. They lived in a luxurious estate with 50 slaves and 10,000 acres. The other families also did a lot of trade with London. George’s older brother Lawrence served as a captain fighting the Spanish in the Caribbean. Admiral Edward Vernon sent 9,000 men to battle in Cartagena, which ended in fiasco, with Lawrence and his men unable to even leave their ship and plagued by tropical diseases. Lawrence received a Royal Commission and practically idolized Admiral Vernon. Lawrence became Virginia’s adjutant general in charge of militia troops. The father, Augustine, died at 49. The mother did not remarry, which was highly unusual. The mother was considered extremely strict and cold.

George lacked formal education, especially university education. Even John Adams mocked him mercilessly for it. George’s brother Lawrence married Ann Fairfax, which brought him into high Virginia society. Her father, a member of the Scottish nobility, had an extraordinary amount of power. The Fairfaxes controlled many acres. George became friends with Ann’s brother. Old Colonel Fairfax saw potential in young George, took him hunting and encouraged him. This was also institutional pragmatism among the high colonial families, because at that time children from wealthy families could often die young and adults were also afflicted by smallpox or tuberculosis. George wrote at the time that he had “many obligations” to the Fairfaxes and especially to the old colonel. In all likelihood, George had already had his father drill into him what the important, hidden mechanisms in the colonies were. In typical British style, the privileged had to constantly earn their privileges and demonstrate stability and loyalty from generation to generation.

It was a quid pro quo: whoever was promoted had obligations and these consisted of absolute loyalty to the colonial structures and most likely espionage. You had to keep an eye on other people and deliver reports. At the same time, George would also have been watched. It was too expensive for Britain to keep a large standing army in the colonies as watchdogs. A spy network was cheaper. Historian Ron Chernow uses the verb “spy” in reference to Colonel Fairfaxe’s interest in George Washington, which seems like a pretty strong suggestion. The initial plan was to get George a position in the Navy, but his mother was strongly against it. The alternative was the job of a surveyor, a reasonable career since new land in the wilderness had to be opened up constantly, which also meant spying on the Indians and recruiting informants from them.

Colonel Fairfax was now the leader of the King’s Council, the upper house of the Virginia legislature. George spent a lot of time out in nature with his friend from the Fairfaxes, visiting and measuring land. George was allowed to participate in the Ohio Company, which revolved around land ownership. His work output was manageable and he was able to buy his first land and afford labor. He owned his first plantation at the age of 18, without being able to manage money responsibly and reliably generate profits during his lifetime. His goal was to marry a rich woman.

The brother Lawrence died and George wanted to take over the position of Adjutant General. Contact with Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie was to continue for quite some time. A new Masonic lodge was formed in Fredericksburg and George achieved the degree of Master Mason within a year. The British colonies were in conflict with the French colonies under the control of the Bourbon king. Dinwiddie had several forts built and a demand was sent to the French to withdraw. 21-year-old George was given the position of Special Envoy. He was supposed to deliver an order signed by King George II. The group included Jacob van Braam and other experienced figures. On the 250-mile journey, people conferred with the Iroquois, who had obtained information about the French (for a fee). For an additional payment, the Indians were supposed to provide an escort. French deserters had provided further information about an encirclement plan. At Fort Le Boeuf, Washington handed over the official document and secretly noted details about the fort’s equipment. After the journey home, he first notified the Fairfaxes, and only then Dinwiddie.

Washington’s detailed report caused a stir in the British Empire. War broke out and Washington became aware of how low his status still was within the British Empire. His mission was to train 100 poor militia soldiers, even though he had no real experience of his own. Classical British officers were inherently of higher status than colonial officers, regardless of rank, which deeply angered Washington. His sense of entitlement was unreasonable because he had zero experience and traditional officers, on the other hand, had undergone lengthy training and had usually completed real missions. The French had 1,000 men and artillery ready. Washington pestered Dinwiddie with new demands for money and surrounded a small French camp with his men and hired Indians. Joseph Coulon de Villiers, the Sieur de Jumonville, who was carrying a diplomatic message to the British, died in the blitz. It is unclear who was primarily responsible for the massacre; the Indians or the British. Because of his ties to the Fairfaxes, Washington was forgiven, as a major war was looming anyway. It is also possible that he had a secret mission for this provocation. Colonel Joshua Fry fell from his horse and died, earning Washington a promotion. The authorities in Britain considered Washington to be hasty.

Even King George II made a derogatory comment about the ambitious young guy. The massive Seven Years’ War was fought by high nobility in many locations around the world. Sir Horace Walpole in London said that a young hillbilly from Virginia had “set the world on fire,” which was a complete exaggeration. The brother of the slain French diplomat Villiers was desperate for revenge and a suitable opportunity arose: Washington had chosen a poor location for his “Fort Necessity” and suffered a clear defeat, which was later described as a kind of draw. The British squad surrendered and the signed document stated that an assassination attempt had been made on Villiers.

Afterwards, excuses were made that the light was bad and the writing was illegible. Washington’s captured diary was published in the French press two years later. It was a propaganda victory for the French. The main responsibility fell on Dinwiddie, who put a positive spin on it and even gave Washington praise. Apparently his approach was respected, or perhaps he had actually carried out the secret assassination mission. He ordered a luxurious uniform from London, with which he wanted to at least look like the real officers, even though his rank was far less valuable. His knowledge of the terrain was in demand, as was his network of informants. He flirted unsuccessfully with the married Sally Fairfax, some of whose letters have survived, but what counted for him was, as always, pure pragmatism. The Fairfaxes had all but adopted him. A battle led by a British general against the French and Indians went badly because the general was used to classic warfare and not the flexible fighting techniques in the forests. Washington never scored with any particular skill, but rather with tenacity and robust health that survived some serious illnesses.

He ordered more expensive uniforms for himself and his officers, without receiving the desired equality with the British. His few men deserted very frequently, which he curbed with severe punishments such as flogging and hanging. He was feared by subordinates and respected by superiors. With his excessive sense of entitlement, he expanded his estate, bought more land, more luxury goods and used more slave labor, without really making any significant profits. He had no lasting prospect of success with farming and trading, so he had to increase his status through relationships. He sought out the rich widow Martha Custis and thereby gained new wealth. The Custis clan was one of the richest and most prominent in all of Virginia. George Washington and Martha had no children of their own, but raised Martha’s children from Daniel Custis, such as John, who married into the British noble Calvert clan. John’s father-in-law Benedict Calvert was the son of Charles Calvert (5th Baron Baltimore, Lord Proprietor of the Colony of Maryland) and may even have been the grandson of the British King George I. Benedict’s mother was probably Melusina von der Schulenburg, an illegitimate daughter of the Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Hannover) and later King George I.

Benedict was descended from the British King Charles II. John is said to have later worked for his father George Washington during the Revolutionary War and carried messages to the British troops as an emissary, which is very suspicious. Another attack was a disaster in which Washington’s own troops accidentally shot at each other. Instead of heroically taking a French fort, it was found abandoned. A long-term military career was hopeless for Washington, so he tried his luck in politics. His debt increased dramatically. 40% of the population in Virginia were slaves, but this form of exploitation did not mean “easy money” as one might think. The enslaved people of African descent took every opportunity to spare themselves and not actually follow orders. Even years later, Washington had problems supplying his growing slave force. In order to work as a politician, he had to use considerable manipulation in the elections. The great war against the French cost Britain a lot of money and the colonies were supposed to pay new taxes and no longer use their own paper money as before. Washington, heavily indebted, continued to indulge in luxury and, like an aristocrat, had his coat of arms displayed everywhere. In 1768/69 he is said to have suddenly converted to a total rebel.

He, who, like his ancestors, had served the royal British structures very submissively, turned to the administration with grandiose plans and conferred with George Mason. Thomas Jefferson also drew attention. So instead of operating in the utmost secrecy, intentions were made clear. British espionage should have caught wind of it immediately. Lord Botetourt immediately had the House of Burgesses dissolved. Nevertheless, Washington appeared to be completely relaxed, which is very surprising. The only thing that had ever worked for him was service to the British Empire. He still maintained contacts with the Royal Governor John Murray, Earl of Dunmore.

3,000 British soldiers landed in Boston after the incident which became a myth as the “Tea Party”. The rebel leaders sat in the Raleigh Tavern, drinking tea and plotting ideas. Washington even declared his intentions to the Fairfaxes.

The most respected Washington biographer writes unequivocally that it made no sense for Washington to take so much risk. He knew that a real revolution was hopeless given the resources of the British. Paul Revere made his famous ride and British troops in Lexington shot a few rebels and then moved on to Concord. An ambush resulted in barely 300 British dead or wounded. Washington, who had previously only ordered a few impoverished militia soldiers around in the woods without ever having fought any major battles, was assigned to lead the rebels and hastily read a few military books. Many rebel leaders were just talkers and theorists. The population as a whole had little desire for such adventures and many better-off circles appeared neutral or hoped that the British would prevail. At first, the rebels couldn’t even decide whether they wanted to achieve independence for the colonies.

Three famous British generals landed: John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton and William Howe. Even John Adams complained in 1807 that Washington’s main attributes were good looks, stoic demeanor, money and a reputation. Generals Horatio Gates and Charles Lee were much better qualified for leadership in many areas. But Washington became the leader of the Continental Army. The first Aide de Camp was Thomas Mifflin, who was just a trader and who was later accused of selling off important goods intended for the soldiers to the highest bidder. In the Battle of Bunker Hill, 2,000 British under General Howe stormed fortified positions and suffered significant losses. But the Empire had 12,000 well-fed professional soldiers available at short notice. Washington dreamed of raising 18,000 amateurs, but where would the equipment for this horde come from – the rifles, the gunpowder, the boots and the tents? The rebels also had no navy to speak of. It was a suicide mission and not even included in this calculation was Britain’s formidable lead in espionage. Networks had been built over generations. The rebel officers should, if possible, come from higher classes and not from the barbarian class. The camps were dirty slums with no professional system to prevent disease, filled by 14,500 men. There were not 308 barrels of gunpowder as thought, but only 36. The actual situation was considered a crucial secret that the rebels had to keep, but by any logic British espionage would have been aware of the situation.

Washington himself expressed surprise as to why the British did not attack. An outbreak of smallpox, it was suspected, could have come from British agents. Washington named British General Howe as the main suspect. The Rebellion had no money to pay the soldiers. On January 1, 1776, the temporary contracts for the soldiers expired. Most armed forces would then no longer exist. Some men simply took short contracts, quit and took new ones to cheat the system. Deserters ran away and sold their clothing and equipment. At the end of November there were only a paltry 3,500 men left. It was hoped for 5,000 freed ex-slaves. Not even 10,000 men could be attracted with new contracts. Many were completely impoverished, some too old, some too young. Around 20 British regiments stood ready and Lord Dunmore destroyed Norfolk, Virginia. The officers expected that the rebels would soon give in and order would be restored. However, Thomas Paine published his pamphlet “Common Sense” calling for full independence with 150,000 copies in circulation.

Anyone who had signed a contract with the rebels could be shot if they refused to fight. The British left Boston and Washington was awarded an apparent victory. King George III next hired 17,000 Hessian mercenaries. This contingent alone significantly outnumbered the rebels. The king, along with the Hessians, had 30,000 men at the ready, while Washington commanded fewer than 9,000 soldiers, 2,000 of whom were sick. 110 British warships and transport ships arrived and General Howe could have forced the decision but refused.

The argument was that Britain did not want to be too harsh in restoring order. Nevertheless, it must have been clear that afterwards, after a quick victory, one could still show leniency. Losing time meant the French would get involved. Crowds of British troops descended on New York and demonstrated a high level of professionalism. It was a complete disaster for Washington. General Howe could have pushed further, but he followed orders to the contrary. His own officers wanted to rush forward and had to be slowed down. Howe’s thin explanation was that he wanted to prevent too many casualties on his own side. The display of military power was intended to intimidate the rebels. Washington’s entire armed forces could quickly collapse completely or largely due to a lack of food, tents, weapons and gunpowder. 9,500 men were evacuated. Howe didn’t pursue prosecution and instead sent an offer to negotiate, but it basically just said that the Crown was offering to decide later whether the ringleaders would be executed.

After another success, Howe missed another opportunity to force the decision. He had to justify himself afterwards to parliament and rambled about avoiding losses and unspecified “political reasons”. Washington had no money and his soldiers wanted to be paid. When the contracts expired, they would be free to leave. The British crushed his troops and, according to eyewitnesses, he cried like a child. Almost 3,000 men surrendered to the Hessian general Baron Wilhelm von Knyphausen and were housed in prison ships under lousy conditions. The British marched toward Fort Lee and the fleeing rebels were not pursued by the cavalry under Cornwallis. Howe was again hesitant. General Clinton had grave concerns, but Howe was rewarded with the title of Knight of the Bath. Joseph Reed became an important confidante for Washington, but secretly sent a letter to General Charles Lee. The generals should continue without Washington. Lee disobeyed orders from Washington but was arrested by the British away from the fray in an inn with prostitutes. Howe came to Trenton and could have taken Philadelphia, but he took his troops to winter quarters in New York.

Washington ordered Horatio Gates to take his regiments across the Delaware River to attack the Hessians. He thought it was a crazy idea, but it was considered the last straw. Without success you would be left completely empty-handed and would have to pack up. According to legend, the Hessians drank a lot the day before; in reality they were on alert. Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall had several warnings. 900 Hessians were captured. Cornwallis had 5,500 men ready but was reluctant to make a main attack. Two victories at Trenton and Princeton were awarded to Washington, whereupon he went to winter camp with his troops in Morristown, New Jersey. The British could actually have destroyed the camp, as Washington himself later admitted. Alexander Hamilton became Washington’s most important confidante. The troops had shrunk to just 2,500 men. Help came from the young Marquis de Lafayette, who had connections to France’s nobility. He attended a school in Versailles and knew the king’s grandchildren there. He married into a high family and the marriage certificate was signed by King Louis XV. In 1777, at the age of 19, he defied royal orders and sailed to America with a letter of introduction from Ben Franklin in his pocket.

The British General Howe had very good intelligence about the territory; he knew it even better than the rebels. Major Patrick Ferguson could have even shot Washington. After another huge disaster for Washington, the British invaded Philadelphia. The first notable victory came at the hands of Horatio Gates, who defeated General Burgoyne at Saratoga and captured 5,000 men. The question of leadership arose because Gates was fundamentally more qualified than Washington, who sent the traitor Benedict Arnold to Gates. In Britain the great theater began after Saratoga; the king was angry and the opposition party in parliament demanded that less money be allocated. Benjamin Franklin took the opportunity to seek support in France. Saratoga was the trigger and historian Ron Chernow specifically uses the phrase that France was “lured” into the US revolution.

The Continental Congress was losing patience with Washington and the Board of War was to become an executive body. British networks could easily have bought rebels who were not already secretly controlled. Thomas Conway became more and more powerful and gathered like-minded people; the so-called Conway Cabal. Washington was to be replaced by Charles Lee. However, the Marquis de Lafayette convinced Congress that cutting off Washington would risk France delaying aid. In December 1777, General Howe kept his troops in relatively comfortable winter camp. Washington, on the other hand, led a squad of zombies. 4,000 of his men didn’t even have a blanket. The Valley Forge camp housed the living dead: the soldiers looked like street bums and had frostbitten parts of their bodies. 30% were sick. 3,000 men didn’t even have shoes. Over the course of the winter months, 2,000 died. The British General Howe would not have realized this, posterity is told.

Many farmers preferred to sell food to the British for the hard currency Pound Sterling rather than to the rebels for their worthless Continental Dollars. There was noticeably little support for the troops from the colonies as a whole. The Baron von Steuben had to reform the amateur army with the help of John Laurens and Alexander Hamilton. Washington, Lafayette and Hamilton maintained close contact with the French. France officially recognized American independence. Months later they were officially at war with Britain. General Charles Lee was released from British custody and then acted as a traitor. The Battle of Monmouth was subsequently exaggerated by Washington as a success. It was the last major battle in the north. Washington stayed there and was more of a spectator, whose main task was to keep the lousy team together. There were no more major victories under his command. The French fleet arrived with 12 ships, four frigates and only 4,000 men. In the global conflict, the American colonies were only a fraction. Washington had to subordinate himself to the Count d’Estaing. The French had expected Washington to command twice as many soldiers. Washington, in turn, hoped for more than 4,000 French people. He didn’t want the French to dig into Quebec and later control the USA. The American currency had lost 90% of its value due to manipulation. The new president of Congress was John Jay. Corruption was rampant everywhere, while the soldiers were dirt poor. The officers also had huge problems and were paid inadequately. The Indians often sided with Britain. Not much happened between 1778 and 1781. Hyperinflation may have been fueled even further by the British counterfeiting money. Months passed without payments to the soldiers. Only 8,000 men were still under contract, a third of whom were unfit to fight. In 1780, the surrender of Charleston resulted in 2,500 prisoners for the rebels. The French promised thousands more troops and Lafayette coordinated with the Count of Rochambeau. 5,000 men in questionable condition were made available. Washington was no longer in control. Historian Ron Chernow calls this idea “fiction.” Horatio Gates was in charge of the important battles in the south. After a massive defeat, Cornwallis had a very good situation. Washington, on the other hand, again had an acute shortage of rifles and powder. The Continental Congress was always conspicuously hesitant and probably infiltrated by the British, who were able to manage the conflict from both sides. Benedict Arnold’s betrayal weighed heavily. His performance at Saratoga was arguably better than Gates’.

Arnold sabotaged improvements at West Point and alerted the British about a secret trip from Washington. The letter was intercepted and so no kidnapping took place. There was even a mutiny among Washington’s troops over lack of supplies and pay. Alexander Hamilton temporarily became Washington’s de facto chief of staff. The French offered new loans and sent their fleet. Washington was only a junior partner and the experienced French were shocked by his army of zombies and bums. The Battle of Yorktown is still a mystery and Cornwallis and Clinton did not trust each other because both were dependent on the secret command structure in London.

Cornwallis surrendered and the rebels took 8,000 prisoners. The American bureaucrats were already planning for the period after the war: a strong central government should have the power to collect taxes. Taxes were originally a trigger for the rebellion. The new America was completely broke, many officers were financially exhausted and could have rebelled, but at the last moment they were dissuaded with money. A questionable peace was concluded with the British without any hereditary enmity arising. The once robust and glamorous Washington had lost almost all of his teeth, wore dentures and, more recently, glasses. All the cannon noise had made him hard of hearing. The founding of the Society of Cincinatti, named after a Roman consul, raised concerns about the creation of an unofficial American aristocracy. Members could pass their membership to their eldest sons. Freemasonry also became more and more important. Washington wanted the Fairfaxes to return and restore the old harmony, with them as neighbors to his Mount Vernon estate. His painstakingly prepared records from the war were valuable to him in order to be able to maintain his status in the future. His personal finances were still problematic because he had never been able to manage money. A total of 200,000 men served in the troops; 25,000 of them had died. The new United States was a loose federation of 13 states and one Congress. The peace treaty stated that the USA had to pay back its pre-war debts to England.

Washington and Hamilton wanted a strong central government. James Madison was one of the largest slave owners. A rebellion occurred in Massachusetts over the high new taxes on land and many farmers lost their livelihoods. Thousands of rebels against the new order had banded together and cultivated quasi-socialist ideas of expropriation, redistribution and common ownership. Thousands of troops were raised to deter the uprising. Washington assumed the formal leadership role and had to play the fair president. This flattered his ego, but he had long since lost interest in the extra work. He was still chronically insolvent, barely able to pay his taxes, and borrowed money to attend his own inauguration. The Philadelphia parade with 20,000 people was a big show, but he was spent and the real influence was distributed among a few bureaucrats. Washington was now almost deaf, skinny and corpse-like. He suffered from an ulcer on his leg. His competitors were often significantly younger. Thomas Jefferson was practically a cliche Virginia aristocrat who betrayed all noble values. Washington appointed 11 justices to the Supreme Court, Hamilton was very active in finance and imposed new taxes and created the central bank “First Bank of the United States”, which was 20% in government hands and 80% private. The model was the Bank of England. Many people did not miss the fact that more and more elements of the British colonial empire were being copied. Washington wanted friendly relations with its important trading partner Britain. Hamilton secretly met with British diplomat Major George Beckwith. The Governor General of Canada, Sir Guy Carleton, even said that Britain wanted an alliance. Jefferson and Madison constantly expressed concern about a kind of secret American monarchy, while they themselves represented that construct. Washington had to serve a second term as president and he didn’t like the everyday life of a politician with the countless meetings and intrigues.

They were neutral in the flaring fight between Britain and France. The following treaty with Britain was very disadvantageous for USA; The “Jay Treaty” was supposed to be dealt with in secret, but the press leaked the text. A half-war with France ensued and Washington symbolically took over the presidency of the armed forces. A long ride in the cold made him very sick and the doctor performed so many bloodlettings that around half of his blood was lost. This may have been a subtle assassination attempt. He died and America’s leadership used his memory for their own purposes.

Bad business

In the new United States, many ordinary citizens were not exactly in a party mood because 50,000 men were dead and injured, the economy had partially collapsed, currency inflation had reached absurd proportions, debts were piling up, and the new US government was mercilessly collecting taxes. The wealthier class of America stuffed their pockets and thought about how they could get the most out of the cause, while for the common people the conditions became so unbearable that thousands of men took up arms and attempted rebellion in Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, Maryland and New Jersey.

The “winners” clique, i.e. the wealthy class, continued to expand their family, business, political and secret structures so that they could keep the common people at bay and maintain the illusion of democracy. To make the hoax more convincing, selected individuals from among the people were allowed to rise into the “better society,” become Freemasons and brag about wealth. This created the myth that it was theoretically possible for anyone to go from rags to riches through hard work and cleverness. To be sure, there was some scope to honestly live the American dream on a limited scale, but American capitalism was largely a set-up from the start. Everyone in the country knew that the founding fathers had been born into wealth, owned a lot of land and that the long-established families, who had made their fortunes from the beginning thanks to the British Crown, intermarried and secured the best positions for themselves. The celebrated new separation of powers of the American system was not particularly convincing, considering that related Freemasons and bigwigs had the police, judiciary and politics in their hands.

In order not to destroy the credibility of the new pseudo-democracy, it needed, on the one hand, secrecy about the true situation and, on the other hand, the illusion that even a penniless migrant could become the richest man. After the revolution, the (apparently) richest man in America became not one of the founding fathers, or a Schuyler or Livingston, but Johann Jakob Astor, a destitute migrant from Germany. He became a powerful transatlantic fur trader, real estate shark and opium dealer with a fortune that would be equivalent to over $100 billion today. Nobody asks whether he was just a front man for these companies and these riches, although of course we have to ask such standard questions, given the mafia-like conditions at the time and the secret service structures. Astor was allowed to join the New York Masonic lodge “Holland Lodge No. 8”, became master of the chair and later even financial manager of the Grand Lodge of New York. These lodges counted among their members important clans of the Anglo-American Empire such as Baron Von Steuben, the Marquis de Lafayette, Governor Dewitt Clinton, Edward H. Harriman and Franklin D. Roosevelt:

  • The gay Baron von Steuben lived off his laurels for the rest of his time. He served for almost 10 years as president of the “German Society of The City of New York,” which looked after migrants from Germany and their paperwork. After von Steuben’s death, Astor became president of the organization and donated generous sums. From an intelligence perspective, it would have been natural to use the organization for espionage purposes. Especially because there were a lot of German migrants. Today, 500,000 people of German descent live in New York City alone and every year the “German-American Steuben Parade” is celebrated there on Fifth Avenue in traditional costumes. The end of the parade, 86th Street, was once jokingly called “Sauerkraut Boulevard” because there were so many German shops there. The parade’s guests of honor included Donald Trump, Henry Kissinger, Richard von Weizsäcker and Helmut Kohl.
  • The Marquis de Lafayette participated in the French Revolution after the American Revolution. He was right in the middle of the events in France, which must have pleased the British.
  • Dewitt Clinton became Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, which had become formally “independent” under Grand Master and US Founding Father Robert Livingston, had a highly successful career as Governor of New York and almost became US President.
  • Edward H. Harriman became a powerful railroad mogul with the help of the Rockefellers, Kahns, Schiffs and Warburgs. He married into the Averell banking family and several descendants became members of the Skull & Bones secret society at Yale University. The CIA grew out of Bones in the 20th century. Samuel Bush and his son Prescott Bush rose in the railroad and arms industries; according to which the latter was allowed to become a member of Bones, as were his son George Herbert Walker Bush (later CIA director and US President) and grandson George Walker Bush (later US President). The Remington arms company, run by Samuel Bush’s contacts Percy Rockefeller and Samuel Pryor, produced millions of rifles and pistols for Tsarist Russia, over half of the rifles and pistols and ammunition for the Anglo-American allies in World War I, and almost 70% of the American rifles. The Bones network later became important in the construction of the Soviet Union and the Third Reich.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt became the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 (Hitler’s rise to power) to 1945 (end of World War II). He came from an influential family. His cousin Clinton Roosevelt wrote the book “The Science of Government Founded on Natural Law,” which promoted socialist ideas. Clinton lamented corrupt corporations and bankers, governments, religion, competition between people and the exploitation of the working and peasant classes. The US form of government is, on the whole, too similar to an aristocracy and based too heavily on the traditions of Great Britain and ancient Rome. Politicians are either demagogues or weak libertarians who have no other concept than laissez faire. The banking system is the actual ruler anyway. Clinton Roosevelt advocated “harmonizing the interests of the people through a form of organization in which it is in the immediate self-interest of the individual to work toward the common good.” For such a system it is necessary to abolish the incentives for exploitation and competitive behavior, which ultimately means restricting entrepreneurial freedom and the right to property. A centralized planned economy is necessary because capitalism is the origin of evil. A grand marshal, his subordinate officers and a council of experts are supposed to use a planned economy to estimate how much of what needs to be produced, distribute tasks and resources so that the common good is served and everyone can live according to their wishes and needs. Roosevelt even provided a labor theory of value similar to Karl Marx’s, although in much simpler language. According to Roosevelt, violent criminals should be locked up in psychiatric institutions, re-educated, forced into forced labor and put on a thin vegetable diet. It is questionable whether Roosevelt, who belonged to a wealthy capitalist clan and thus to the ruling class in America, really supported such a socialist system. Ultimately, it appears that America’s wealthy ruling class has spread socialist ideology as a false solution to the problem of exploitation; as misleading for the masses. Socialism has serious design flaws and divides society, which was clearly visible in the 20th century in the ideological-political struggle between left and right, as well as in the East-West conflict of the Cold War. Socialism was promoted in Britain by the Fabian Society and its wealthy capitalist patrons. Influential Anglo-American circles ultimately helped socialism achieve a breakthrough in Russia.

Sources:

“The Brotherhood: The Secret World of the Freemasons” von Stephen Knight

“Inside the Brotherhood: Further Secrets of the Freemasons” von Martin Short

http://www.sacred-texts.com/mas/dun/dun08.htm

Lossing, Benson J. (1881-02-22). “The Weeping-Willow”. Harper’s Young People: an Illustrated History. New York: Harper & Brothers.

http://gayhistoryproject.epgn.com/historical-profiles/george-washington-gay-friendly-father-of-our-country/

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/nicholas-sheppard/the-gay-man-who-saved-the_b_7838506.html

George Washington: Master Mason, Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., Richmond, VA.

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